Classical and behavioral perspectives are popular strategic management theories. However, most times people do not know which one of these is the oldest theory. Here, we will be helping you find out what is the role behavioural science in modern management. Plus, we will answer your question “can a manager use both classical and behavioral perspectives?”.
In this article, we will be discussing whether can a manager use both classical and behavioral perspectives. Although we know that each of the elements of a company or business is essential for its proper functioning; it is also true that the good approach to management is essential for there to be order and to ensure that each one is carrying out their tasks effectively. For this, we will talk about which management techniques produce a better result, and see how has management changed over time.
- How is management defined?
- What is the behavioral theory?
- What is a classical theory?
- Which is the oldest theory of the origin of state?
- What is the role of behavioral science in modern management?
- How can The Talent Point help you?
1. How is management defined? what is the role behavioural science in modern management
We can define this as the formulation, execution, and evaluation of actions that will allow an organization to achieve its objectives. Management includes identifying an organization’s internal strengths and weaknesses, determining a company’s external opportunities and threats, establishing company missions, setting goals, developing alternative strategies, analysis of these alternatives, and the decision which to choose. It is an exciting process that allows an organization to be proactive rather than reactive in formulating its future
In turn, we can describe the strategic management process as an objective and systematic approach to decision-making in an organization. Management is an attempt to organize qualitative and quantitative information in such a way as to allow effective decision-making in uncertain circumstances. Companies base strategic decisions more on objective criteria and analyzes than on one’s own past experiences or past judgments or “organic” feelings. For its part, various techniques have been implemented for the operation of strategic management and today we will see if can a manager use both classical and behavioral perspectives
2. What is the behavioral theory?
First, we must know in depth what each one focuses on to determine if can a manager use both classical and behavioral perspectives and which is the oldest theory of the origin of the state. Therefore, the classical theory stems from the basic concern of boosting the productivity of the company by increasing efficiency at the operational level, that is, at the level of the operators. Hence the emphasis on the analysis and division of labor, since the tasks of the position and the occupant constitute the fundamental unit of the organization.
In this sense, scientific management approaches business studies as a bottom-to-top scheme; from the operator to the supervisor or manager, and from the operator parties and their positions, for the entire business organization. Attention at work prevailed, in the movements necessary for the execution of a task, and in the time pattern determined for its execution: this analytical and specific care allows the specialization of the operator and the regrouping of movements, operations, tasks, positions, etc. that constitute the so-called rational organization of work.
It was in addition to this, a current of ideas developed by engineers, who sought to develop true industrial engineering within an eminently pragmatic conception. The emphasis on tasks is the main characteristic of behavioral management. Next, we will know if you can a manager use both classical and behavioral perspectives
2.2 Phases of management of behavioral systems
A behavioral management approach comprises the phases:
- Analysis: During the analysis, the behavioral contingencies and meta-contingencies that operate naturally on the behavior of the individuals in the behavioral system before the intervention begins are considered. “A behavioral contingency is a dependent relationship between the stimulating conditions, the behavior, and an outcome or consequence. This analysis allows us to determine the factors that affect the behavior of the members of the organization
- Specification: Consists of determining the performance objectives that desire for the organization at the individual, departmental and corporate levels.
- Design: Subsequently, the intervention, specifies the behavior or behaviors to modify in the members of the organization, the behavioral contingencies that are going to be used, the type of intervention, and the monitoring plan.
- Implementation: Then, implements the change program in the organization as specified in the design, and then evaluated.
- Evaluation: The evaluation consists of comparing the results with the intervention, about what had been determined as a desirable objective.
- Recycling: Finally, and according to the evaluation, we proceed to recycle; restart the process from the analysis phase, until the organization achieves the objectives previously defined in the change plan.
3. What is a classical theory?
For its part, the classical theory arises shortly after the Industrial Revolution, there is a great diversification and multiplication of organizations. Classical organization theory deals almost exclusively with the structure of formal organizations; is the organization based on a rational division of labor, on the differentiation and integration of the participants according to some criteria established by those who handle the decision-making process, approved by the management and communicated to all through organization manuals, description of positions, organizational charts, rules, and procedures, etc.
The classicists are more concerned with the design and structure of organizations than with people, that is, as an economic being who receives fair compensation for a certain job. Henry Fayol, made important contributions to the different administrative levels, and is considered the father of the Classical Theory which arises from the need to find guidelines to manage complex organizations, was the first to regulate managerial behavior, “it has as its culminating part 14 principles of administration and for administration, it is a fundamental part of efficient work in any business”. With this, we clarify our questions, can a manager use both classical and behavioral perspectives? And which of the following are sub grouping of classical approach? Let us observe:
3.1 Division of Labor
For better performance at work, specialization is essential. The more the employee specializes, the better his efficiency.
Managers have to give orders, they will not always get obedience, if they do not have personal authority or leadership. For example, when a direct order from the CEO is given, managers should enforce it, regardless of whether they have to remove any of their employees from their line of work to achieve it, but it is an order and it must be followed.
Some companies have among their policies to wear the uniform correctly, with the authorized clothing colors, and with the badge at all times.
3.4 Management Unit
Operations that have the same objective and follow a plan. Synergy to achieve the necessary operations. The departments must assist others to accomplish the tasks and projects that assigns to each one, instead of denying help. There must be a coordinated plan for this, approved and authorized by the managers involved.
3.5 Unity of Command
Instructions on a particular operation come from only one person.
3.6 Subordination of individual interest to the common good
In any company, the employee must have a primary concern for the organization. For example, if the employee has to spend extra time working on something that needs to be ready by a certain date, they should do it, and not just think about their comfort. The better you work for your department, the better you contribute to its productivity, and the productivity of the company.
Compensation for work must be equitable for employees and employers. For equal jobs, and equal wages. A very fair scheme is that of commissions used in sales since each salesperson earns based on their performance in the period. A base salary plus the sales that you close gives your salary.
Fayol believed that managers bear ultimate responsibility but employees must have sufficient authority to properly execute their work.
3.9 Scalar chain
The line of authority in an organization passes in order of rank from top management to the lowest levels of the company. For example, the General Director should not have to worry about the internal problems of the company’s departments, and there is a Corporate Manager who in turn has a deputy manager and supervisors for each area of the department, who report to him the most relevant and that requires your attention.
Each individual must occupy the most convenient position for him.
Managers must be friendly and fair with employees. Firm but fair. For example, reprimand policies establish, which contemplate the permissible limits before applying them. Managers’ judgment has a lot to do with this. If an employee absence three times in the month without justification, he gets a sanction equal to three days of suspension without pay.
3.12 Staff stability
For an efficient operation in the organization, low staff turnover is the most convenient.
Employees should be given the freedom to express and carry out their ideas, even when they sometimes make mistakes. For example, if an employee has an idea of how to increase productivity or how to improve a method within the company, he should express it through a proposal to his boss, so that he can promote it, if feasible, and give him support and follow-up. This is to the benefit of both the department and the company.
3.14 Team spirit
Promoting team spirit will give the organization a sense of unity. All departments within the company must work together and support each other when necessary to achieve a joint venture. One of the contributions of classical theory is based on the division and specialization of work.
4. Which is the oldest theory of the origin of state?
We can see that the oldest is the classical theory, since the behavioral theory is only an improved variation, and not only focuses on the company as such. It focuses on training and strengthening the most important capital, the employee, and training entrepreneurs as organizations. That highlights excellence, efficiency, productivity, effectiveness, competition, quality, and changes in the company.
On the other hand, the human quality that represents focuses on future and immediate changes that make both the company and the working staff generate solid economic profits; improving mutual and social benefit, modern management does not have a pyramidal planning base. They forge in an organizational network on the way to better direction and are not under strict control. Now, can a manager use both classical and behavioral perspectives?
Of course, since behavioral theory comes from classical theory only adjusted to current conditions. Now we have no doubt which one of these is the oldest theory. Now we do not have any doubt about which one of these is the oldest theory and we put an end to the scientific management vs human relations discussion.
4.1 Importance of strategic management
Now that our question is, “can a manager use both classical and behavioral perspectives?” Is already solved, we proceed to explain the importance of good strategic management. Well, this is what directs the actions of the company towards success, helps promote the necessary changes, and overcomes obstacles, in addition to reducing risks and fully understanding the mission and vision of the company.
It is through strategic management that you make the professionals who work in the company aware of their responsibilities. This reflects the increase in productivity and; consequently, in the competitiveness of the business, and also helps in the proper use of resources; the reduction of waste, and the maximization of the profitability of each action triggered by the company. Therefore, it is strategic management that should focus on promoting the continuous improvement of your business; in addition to ensuring the survival of the company over time. Thus, can a manager use both classical and behavioral perspectives?
The answer is yes because a manager can use all the resources and knowledge necessary for the company to succeed.
4.2 Which is the oldest theory of the origin of the state?
On the other hand, the oldest theory of the origin of the state was proposed by W. Wilson at the end of the 19th century and assumes the validity of the postulate that indicates; that public management has the task of establishing what the government can legitimately do well. And how to do it with the greatest efficiency and with the least cost of money and effort.
Based on this postulate; he works to show the evolution of the Anglo-Saxon thought of public management from different stages of construction. And that we now recognize as orthodox or classical administration; public policy studies, the new public administration, governance, comparative public management, and democratic management. Each of these currents and/or approaches accounts for the multiplicity of perspectives and instruments for the study of government activity.
5. What is the role of behavioral science in modern management?
As well as human behavior within organizations is unpredictable because it is caused by needs and value systems deeply rooted in people. There are no simple, practical formulas for working with people, nor is there an ideal solution to organizational problems. All that can be done is to increase existing understanding and capabilities to raise the level of quality of human relations at work.
Goals are difficult to achieve, but they have great value. If you are willing to think of people as human beings, you can work effectively with them. For this reason, we question: what is the role of behavioral science in modern management?
We dare to say that it is the most important role since human behavior, and performance is what defines the success or failure of an organization. Contingency theory emphasizes that there is nothing absolute in organizations: everything is relative and always depends on some factor.
6. How can The Talent Point help you?
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